Causes Of Type 1 Diabetes
The causes of type 1 diabetes are known only partially. It is known that type 1 diabetes is a polygenic disease, in which many different genes are involved in the development. So far, more than 20 disease-related loci are known.
The risk of developing type 1 diabetes, is highest in people with a family history, which already carrying a defected gene which is responsible for causing Type 1 diabetes. Almost ten percent of Type 1 diabetes have family history. Almost 20 different type of gene mutations are associated with Type 1 diabetes.
A particularly big impact seems to have a group of genes that are almost exclusively present on chromosome no. 6: The so-called human leukocyte antigen system (HLA), has a significant impact on the control of the immune system. Certain HLA-DR3 and HLA-DR4 have major contribution in development of Type 1 diabetes. Parents who suffer from the disease, must undergo diagnosis to determine the approximate risk of illness for their child.
Glucose Metabolic Regulation
In the Langerhans islands of the pancreas the beta cells are present which are attacked by immune system. Beta cells are insulin producing cells. The body’s own defense cells, the T cells shall do so against their own beta cells, thereby triggering a chronic inflammation in the Langerhans islands which ultimately leads to destruction of the beta cells. The earlier in life this inflammatory process begins, it run more fast and do more damages. As the insulin producing cells are destroyed to a large extent or completely, so no more glucose can enter the cells because of missing of neurotransmitter insulin. As a result the blood sugar is rises.
What factors arises that cause autoimmunity is intensively researched. Environmental influences such as early childhood nutrition and infection are the focus of investigations.
The immune system of an infant come into contact with various substances every day. While antibodies are formed against harmful foreign substances, which is specified to destroyed the foreign substances . In type 1 diabetes, these antibodies are incorrectly raised against the body’s own cells. This produces a reaction of the immune system against endogenous structures (autoimmunity).
It could be proven that so far there is no clear causal relationship of type 1 diabetes and specific individual factors. However, an association between vitamin D deficiency in infancy and recurrent respiratory infections in childhood and type 1 diabetes are associated with each other. Mother which is infected with various viruses (rubella, herpes and cytomegalovirus) during pregnancy will also be contribute in development of Type 1 diabetes in child.