Spinaliom or Squamous cell carcinoma is a type of white skin cancer. Squamous cell carcinoma i defined as a malignant skin tumor that can occur on skin and mucous membranes and grows destructively . It is malignant tumor of cells of the Stratum spinosum. If we viewed from the inside out, stratum spinosum (prickle cell layer) is second of the five layers of the epidermis.
The epidermis is composed of a multilayered keratinizing squamous epithelium. Accordingly, it is a malignant tumor of this squamous a so we called it squamous cell carcinoma. The squamous cell carcinoma include the cancers of:
In nine out of ten cases, head and facial area is affected. After basal cell carcinoma (BCC) squamous is the second most common skin cancer .
The body parts that are particularly more exposed to intense UV radiation from the sun: face, ears, back of the hands and forearms are frequent sites of origin for a squamous cell carcinoma. Mouth, tongue, lip and genitals may also be affected by a Spinaliom. In men squamous may also occur on the tips of the ears, the neck and on the Bald in sparse hair.
The incidence rate is 20-30 new cases per year. The trend is growing. The mean age at disease onset is 70 years. Men are affected slightly more often than women (2-5: 1).
Squamous cell carcinoma: Causes
Spinaliom or Squamous cell carcinoma is caused by changes at genetic level (DNA) due to multiplicative factors e.g sun exposure, hair color, family history, degree of suntan, ionizing radiation such as X – rays or gamma rays skin diseases. But the most important factor is long term exposure to UV radiations. Some time actinic keratoses is also transform into spinaliom…….
Squamous cell carcinoma: Symptoms
Symptoms of Squamous cell carcinoma are predominantly found on durable light-irradiated regions of the face, such as nose, lower lip (most common), and ear. They often occur directly at the transitions from skin to mucosa, for example, on the lips. However, tongue, back of the hands, lower legs, penis, vulva and anal area are other possible locations. Externally often shows an unremarkable start with a rather small, painless nodes.
Since it is superficially located tumors , they should be clearly visible with the naked eye without aids. The transition from the chronic predamage toward the cancer usually runs unnoticed.
Squamous cell carcinoma have following possible symptoms:
- Crusted, scaly and reddened spots
As the disease progresses, it forms a coarse node, which caused the little to no pain , but may bleed easily. However, the tumor grows rapidly in depth and within a short time can lead to ulcers and extensive injury of adjacent tissues. Occasionally can be emptied yellowish horn masses from the nodes.
Squamous cell carcinoma: Diagnosis
Dermatologist take a tissue sample from a tumor (biopsy) and examine it histologically under the microscope.
Squamous cell carcinoma have potential to spread to the other tissues so doctors may used ultrasound or X-ray examination or computed tomography (CT) for diagnosis of secondary tissues.
Squamous cell carcinoma: Treatments
As with other cancers, the chance of cure is maximum if the treatment is start in early stage of the disease: The sooner the doctor treats a squamous cell, the better the chances of recovery. The exact treatment depends completely on where the Spinaliom occurs, how big it is and whether it has already formed secondary tumors (metastases).
In squamous cell carcinoma, the best therapy is a surgical removal of the tumor and suspicious lymph nodes. If the doctor does not remove the Spinaliom because of its location and spread, than radiation therapy, sometimes in combination with a chemotherapy or a so-called chemo-immunotherapy is used. Radiation therapy is also useful if the doctor could remove the squamous incomplete and / or lymph nodes are infested from cancer.
If distant metastases are present, than doctors together with the patient decided whether more surgery or radiation therapy is useful as a life-saving measure or not. Even chemotherapy is suitable for advanced disease stages of spinalioma.
Squamous cell carcinoma: Prevention
Excessive UV radiation on the skin is one of the main risk factors not only for the Spinaliom, but also for other types of skin cancer, basal cell carcinomas or as malignant melanoma .
- Avoid direct sunlight and protect your skin with sunscreens and textiles.
- Limit the duration of the sunlight.
- Provide adequate protection from light.
- Avoid contact with carcinogenic substances.
Men with sparse hair wear headdress. Children should generally not be exposed to direct sun. The lighter the skin type is, the more attention should be paid to the sunscreen.
Examine your skin regularly , for early detection of a carcinoma. Legal skin cancer screening exercise is also recommended. In an unclear lesion you should go immediately to the doctor.
If you are already suffering from squamous cell carcinoma, take necessarily true cancer aftercare. Consult your physician in the specified control intervals. Only the timely detection of a recurrence of the old tumor (relapse) assures the chance of permanent cure in a squamous cell carcinoma.